Infogrid Pacific-The Science of Information



Glossary of general digital publishing, digital content metadata and specific IGP:Digital Publisher terms as used in IGP manuals. Updated: 2012-07-28



This document may introduce terms and concepts that are new to you. This glossary will assist you to understand what a manual is saying if there is any doubt with a specialist term or acronym. The glossary is a quick reference to specialist controlled vocabulary, classification and indexing terms used in all IGP user's manuals. IGP manuals also use some generic and overloaded words in a specific sense within the product context. The glossary will resolve any ambiguities.

Glossary terms generally conform to international accepted definitions within the Information and Digital Content knowledge domain, but we sometimes use them in a constrained sense for both implementation and usability reasons.

Where a term is highly applicable for a specific application its code it placed at the beginning of the definition. If there is no code, the glossary term is broadly applicable across all products.

This glossary primarily covers product, usage and technical terms. See the FX Selector list for definitions of the parts of a document and purpose and use of specific FX selectors for sections, blocks, paragraphs and inline content. The glossary also contains items related to proprietary products and systems the trade names remain the property of their respective owners.

This is not a neutral glossary! It is a digital content practitioner glossary which defines business problems, limitations and challenges related to creating, distributing and using advanced digital content for any purpose. The glossary items include information related to practical engagement with various proprietary reading systems and business models for digital content strategies across the world. 


Adobe Digital Editions Acronym ADE. ADE is e-book reader software from Adobe Systems and uses Adobe Flash. ADE is a free eBook reader that must be registered with Adobe. It was the standard global reader for ePub2, but is unlikely to gain that position for ePub3. It is likely to focus on non-standard eatures Adobe is pushing with the W3C CSS-3 standard to create a market position with print-familiar fixed layout strategies which play to the small/medium publisher market who is content to use their InDesign products.

Adobe DRM Product name: Adept. A common DRM system for epub and pdf files. Used by Barnes & Noble, Kobo and Sony ebookstores. The punitive licensing fees drive many users to other systems. Adobe charge in the order of US$0.10 per book ecrypted with their system. The DRM can easily be broken by publicly available "cracking" software. 

Associative relationship (Controlled vocabularies) Associative relationships are used to connect two related terms whose relationship is neither hierarchical nor equivalent. Associative relationships should be applied with caution, since excessive use of RTs will reduce specificity in searches. Consider the following: if the typical user is searching with term "A", would they also want resources tagged with term "B"? If the answer is no, then an associative relationship should not be established.This relationship is described by the indicator "Related Term" (RT).

Authority file (Controlled vocabularies)A flat (non-hierarchical) list containing preferred terms. It can include variant terms.

An authority file is a list of terms that define the correct usage, and often spelling dissambiguation for words and phrases used in complex, specialist and arcane areas of knowledge. An authority file is normally a single list, but it can be organized by defined Node Labels to make access and usage easier in appropriate interfaces.

IGP:Information Architect 2 also uses Authority Files for lists of items that need to be displayed and selected in forms across all IGP:ECMS Solutions applications so they can be maintained in a single location rather than the program interface. For example - week-day, month-name lists.

AZARDI An ePub2/3 reader created and maintained by Infogrid Pacific. There is a desktop, online and mobile version. The desktop version is available for free. It is currently the most competent content rendering ePub3+ reader available. 

AZARDI Interactive Engine The comprehensive and scriptable Javascript engine that allows sophisticated HTML5/CSS-3/Javascript interactive content to be easily created. Scriptable interactive content includes Questions and Answers, animations, flashcards, tutorials and virtually any organic interactions you want or need to create. The AZARDI Interactive Engine is licensed with Digital Publisher and AZARDI Fulfilment Systems.


Block An informal term for any FX tagging pattern Content Block.

Broader term (Controlled vocabularies) The superordinate word in an inclusion or hierarchical relationship. Broader term is a relative term relationship which describes the relationship to any other term that is a narrower term of this term. Broader term or parent term are similar in concept. For example, “shoe” is a broader term than “running shoe”. Abbreviated in displays as “BT.”

A class or category term. The inversion of broader term is narrower term. See: narrower term.


Category term (Controlled vocabularies) A root term of any vocabulary which defined the semantic starting point of any specific vocabulary. A Category term is always a Preferred Term. A Category Term can have narrower terms, but by definition cannot have any broader term relationships as Category Terms defined the commencement branches of any particular vocabulary.

Classification schemes (Controlled vocabularies) A classification scheme is the descriptive information for an arrangement or division of objects into groups based on characteristics which the objects have in common. Subject Indexes, taxonomies and thesauruses are examples of classification schemes. Strictly speaking an authority file is not necessarily a classification rather just a list of terms in a context to control correct or easy usage. Similarly a Glossary is not a classification scheme.

Code A code is an optional part of any vocabulary term that indicates some formal code oriented classification system. This is used in subject index schemes such as the Library of Congress, BIC and the Dewey Decimal system. Generally a code must be a unique value to be useful in a retrieval system. The code extension to a term means users can use natural language to retrieve a term, but the application will use the code value for classification.

DP form interfaces have Project Info and Document Info have Code fields available for use by Account holders.Code is also a vocabulary sort option in IGP:Information Architect 2.

Collaborate Any activity where two or more people work together for a common outcome. We specifically differentiate between collaboration - which is a cooperative activity, and workflow - which is a mandated activity.

Common Lists A term referring to standard defined structural HTML lists that do not have any semantic value added. This includes Ordered Lists Unordered (bulleted) lists and Definition Lists.

Content Content is data that can be saved as a computer file or set of computer files in a specific format. Content files have a MIME type or custom file type that associates the content file with a software application. The software application can display the content and may also allow content to be modified or interacted with. We talk specifically about digital content as files and metadata files and don't get confused with the philosophical idea of content.

Content Block A general term for an FX named tagging pattern that has structural, semantic, styling, presentation, processing instruction or behavioural properties and characteristics to give digital content current and future value. Foundation content blocks are classified as document-sections, document-title-blocks, title-blocks, text-blocks, media-blocks, common-lists, named-lists, tables and layout. There are also many genre and interactive blocks for specialist publications.  

Content Item (CI) (IV2) The abstract concept of content. In bibliographic terms there are works, which have manifestations, which have item instances. Items are what we store and manage at the idea level. However we are a little bit flexible here. A Content Item can be metadata only or a highly complex package of files with many associated metadata files. All IGP:ECMS Content Items are packaged using METS in Repository.

Controlled vocabulary (Controlled vocabularies) A Controlled vocabulary is a subset of natural language that is used to tag documents using some form of classification scheme, and then to find content through navigation or search.  The goal for a Controlled Vocabulary is to establish agreement between the concepts within an application interface and the natural language vocabulary of the person using it. Controlled vocabularies are essential to the management of large collections.

IGP:Information Architect 2 allows the following four types of controlled vocabularies:

   Authority files

CSS Cascading Style Sheets. A standard maintained by the W3C

CSS Editor The interface that allows a document CSS to be directly edited and saved to create unique or standard layout, styling and presentation for a document or document Design Profile.



DAISY  Acronym: Digital Accessible Information System  The DAISY Consortium is an organization that advocates accessible publishing practices for people with disabilities. The functionality provided in the ANSI/NISO Z39.86 standard maintained by the Consortium has been integrated in EPUB 3.

Data The bits and bytes that are stored on computer storage media and used in a computer. From our perspective everything is data if it can be saved onto some sort of computer storage device.

Data Object (DO-IV2) The smallest component of content that is stored as a single referable computer file. A data object is distinct from a file because it may have any amount of associated metadata (that is not embedded in the file or implied from the file) which the system maintains. A Data Object does not have to be a file. It could be the metadata of stored in the DO itself.

For example a Records Data Object (containing just one simple file) may be surrounded by multiple metadata files including evidence seal, digital provenance history, access history, retention and disposal policy rules. Together these constitute the Data Object.

Design Profiles The capability of instantly creating multiple CSS print, e-book and package editions of a book or document from a single IGP:FoundationXHTML source file. Each Design Profile is a separate presentation expression. 

Document A high level abstraction of an organized unstructured content that is publishable and of value. 

DPI Document Processing Instructions. The interface that allows template or document processing requirements to be applied. Features include section reordering for e-book formats, metadata definitions, and other pre-defined available processing. 

DocBook An XML DTD for tagging technical books. Designed for computer books, but then twisted for general trade books because it was the only game in town for many years.

DRM Acronym: Digital Rights Management. DRM systems are designed to protect e-book files from opening by unauthorized users or on unauthorized devices. Theoretically a user cannot read a Sony ebook on Nook or Nook ebook on a Sony device, because they have different DRMs. The fatal flaw with DRM systems is they use encryption designed  to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks. This does not work with A to B systems, so cracking of encryption systems is relatively straight-forward. Amazon Kindle, Adobe Digital Editions, Kobo and Barnes and Noble Nook all depend on fatally flawed DRM systems.

DTDAcronym: Document Type Definition. The controlling file that specifies exactly how a specific XML can be used. This is required to validate an XML file in an attempt to see if it has been correctly tagged.


E-book The electronic counterpart of a printed book, which may be viewed or downloaded in different ways, including on a desktop computer or laptop, e-book reader, or smartphone.\

E-book Format A downloadable or distributable file format in which an e-book can be distributed. There are dozens of e-book formats the most common being: ePub, Mobi/prc, PDF. Other formats are proprietary or legacy. 

Enterprise A common term used for an organization that is in transactional business with customers and suppliers. When we use enterprise we mean a business trading for profit, otherwise we use organization.

ePub The e-book format defined and controlled by the IDPF. The current version is ePub3 which has yet to have wide adoption. There are limited Reading Systems available. AZARDI was the world's first ePub3 reader. 

E-reader an electronic book reader of some kind. It can be a software application or a device app. It is an electronic device designed to present e-books for reading. The most popular e-reader in the USA is currently the Amazon Kindle. Amazon Kindle and Kindle Fire do not directly support the ePub format, and will probably never be able to support the ePub3 format as it is too sophisticated for the KF3 and device capabilities. 

Enhanced ebook Generally an e-book with added audio, video, and perhaps some other interactive elements to allow a user to have some interaction with the content. Enhanced ebooks are generally regarded as a failed marketing gambit except for specific content genre types. 

Equivalency relationship (Controlled vocabularies) The equivalency relationship is used primarily to connect synonyms and near-synonyms. Use (USE) and Used For (UF) indicators are used when an authorized term is to be used for another, unauthorized, term; for example, the entry for the authorized term "Frequency" could have the indicator "UF Pitch". Reciprocally, the entry for the unauthorized term "Pitch" would have the indicator "USE Frequency". Unauthorized terms are often called "entry vocabulary", "entry points", "lead-in terms", or "non-preferred terms", pointing to the authorized term (also referred to as the Preferred Term or Descriptor) that has been chosen to stand for the concept. As such, their presence in text can be use by automated indexing software to suggest the Preferred Term being used as an Indexing Term.

Note that equivalency relationships are language specific and may or do not move well across linguistic boundaries. . See Used for.

Exchange Language (Controlled vocabularies) The exchange language is the base or foundation language that the vocabulary is built in. If the vocabulary is translated to any other language, the other languages are known as the target languages.


Figure A numbered block that can be referred to from the text and a generated List of Figures. 

Fixed layoutA type of e-book that has a defined and fixed presentation frame size and the internal content is defined into static positions within that framework. The IDPF Fixed Layout specification is the standard for ePub fixed layout coding and behaviour in a wide range of reading systems and devices. Apple iBooks and Amazon Kindle Fire, and other readers have proprietary fixed layout systems. 

Float A content block that can be moved independently within a parent block context. In print blocks can be floated to the top or bottom of pages and columns, as well as to the left and right margins horizontally. 

Font-face A single file representing a style for a particular font design. 

Font-family A CSS named group of fonts that can be applied to represent all font-faces that comprise a specific font design by CSS properties. The CSS properties that can be used to define a font-face into a font-family are style, weight, stretch and variant. 

Font Feature A property of an OTF font that allows different glyph representations to be used in different contexts. There are two primary types of font features: GSUB, which substitute the standard glyph with another glyph or glyphs. An example is standard ligatures; and GPOS which defines the positioning of glyphs with respect to each other. An example is font kerning.  

Font Scheme A combination of fonts that are mapped to FX structure and semantic elements and can be directly applied to a document. On application they are instantly viewable in print PDF, Reader formats or the Writer editing panel. 

Font Scheme Map The map of FX CSS selectors to specific name controlled font-family statements to allow font schemes to be created and applied. 

Format A specific package of digital content for delivery and use in a specific reading framework or device. There are open and proprietary formats. 

FX The abbreviation for IGP:FoundationXHTML. A vocabulary controlled XHTML5 for tagging publisher content for long-term digital content value and reuse.


Genre, Document Used in FoundationXHTML to describe content with individual characteristics that require specific tagging patterns. Examples are poetry, drama, recipes, travel books, textbooks, reference books and others. 

Glossary (Controlled vocabularies) A glossary is an alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms. A core glossary is a simple glossary or defining dictionary which enables definition of other concepts, especially for newcomers to a language or field of study. It contains a small working vocabulary and definitions for important or frequently encountered concepts, usually including idioms or metaphors useful in a culture. Strict a glossary is not a controlled vocabulary.

Glyph The specific shape, design, or representation of a character in a specific typeface.

Guide The guide element is defined in the ePub2 specification. It's purpose is to identify "fundamental structural components of the publication", to enable Reading Systems to provide convenient access to them. It can only occur once in an ePub and is optional. It has not be used well or at all in ePub2 readers. The Guide has been replaced by Landmarks in ePub3. 


Heirarchical relationship (Controlled vocabularies) Hierarchical relationships are used to indicate terms which are narrower and broader in scope. A "Broader Term" (BT) or hyperonym is a more general term, e.g. “Apparatus” is a generalization of “Computers”. Reciprocally, a Narrower Term (NT) or hyponym is a more specific term, e.g. “Digital Computer” is a specialization of “Computer”. BT and NT are reciprocals; a broader term necessarily implies at least one other term which is narrower. BT and NT are used to indicate class relationships, as well as part-whole relationships (meronyms and holonyms).

HTML5 The new standard for Web programming which introduces a lot of new features while significantly maintaining past compatibility. Notably it is not based on SGML or an XML DTD. It is a scripting language.



iBooks Author A "free" application to produce ebooks with pre-defined interactive components and rich media (audio, video). This targets the textbook market in particular, but the resulting formats are only usable on Apple tablet devices. Ultimately a digital content ghetto. 

ID An abbreviation for Identier. Most XHTML elements are given exclusive identifiers in FX. 

ID Generator A tool which allows IDs to be generated and repaired to ensure they are exclusive within a section or document so they conform to XML validation rules. 

IDPF Acronym International Digital Publishing Forum. The IDPF is a global trade and standards organization dedicated to the development and promotion of electronic publishing and content consumption using the ePub standards. It is under the heavy influence of North American technology companies, with strong influence from Japanese manga publishers. The specification strongly reflects these commerical interests which severely limit the value of the specification. The stated purpose of the IDPF is to promote the development of electronic publishing applications and products that will benefit creators of content, makers of reading systems, and consumers. The weightage is to the reading system group. The specification is very immature in the production dimensions and has little consideration for the costs of producing valuable digital content.

IGP:Digital Publisher (DP) The collective name for the Infogrid Pacific digital content creation and format generation application including all modules.

IGP:Digital Publisher Management (DPM) The primary user, project and document organization module. 

IGP:Document Designer (DD) A loosely coupled stand-alone application that provides an interactive User Interface for the application of advanced and detailed CSS styles to named IGP:FoundationXHTML selectors. These are then updated to the IGP:Document Designer CSS Editor.

IGP:Font Manager 2 (FM2) A stand-alone application module that provides extensive font mangement services and creative font services for IGP:Digital Publisher and IGP:Document Designer. FM2 is specifically a CSS-3 font manager which also includes the ability to create font-families and font-schemes. It has interfaces to view font metadata, characters and font-features. 

IGP:Typography in the Browser (TIB) A tightly integrated application module that provides the ability to interactively apply kerning, tracking and other typographic properties to a specific design profile rendering of an IGP:FoundationXHTML document.

Image Specifically a binary image. A raster or vector depiction of something as a picture. IGP:Digital Publisher supports (Raster) JPG, PNG, GIF and for print only TIFF, (Vector) SVG. 

Index A list of terms of note or interest found in the document and organized into an alphabetical list, normally at the end of the document. 

Index Term A word or phrase that is tagged for inclusion in the index through processing. It is also an interaction target in output formats. 

Interactive The ability for a user to interact with content (not the reader navigation) with a keyboard, mouse (pointing device) or touch interaction. Digital Publisher supports many interactive components with the AZARDI Interactive Engine scriptable Javascript engine. 

iPad the most popular tablet in North America and developed countries, produced by Apple. There are a number of e-reading applications for iPad, including iBooks, Kindle, Nook and Kobo. iPad has not pentrated into the developing world except the wealthy because of the cost and commercial model limiting i-Bookstore and other tools to US credit card holders. Apple has difficulty penetrating developing world markets due to digital content rights issues and revenue models. 


Javascript. A scripted programming language for use primarily in browsers. This has become very significant when used with HTML5 and to create interactive products. The AZARDI Interactive Engine is written in the Javascript programming language.

Justify Text which is aligned with both the left and right margins. Justification is primarily done by the rendering engine manipulating the word spacing and hyphenation if enabled.


Keyword A list of uncategorised words or phrases associated with an object to assist in its recall. Keywords can be freely assigned or retrieved from a controlled vocabulary such as an authority file or taxonomy to ensure usage is consistent.

Kindle A range of e-book readers produced and sold by Amazon. Notable for the fact they do not support the mobi/prce format and not the ePub format (except in it's simplest form) due to their market dominance in North America.

Kindle Fire Kindle Fire is a new reader supporting the kf8 format (kindle format 8). This is a new ebook file format from Amazon, that "sort of" replacing mobi although internally it still uses the PalmdB format for content storage. It allows certain types of fixed layout and interactive ebooks with strictly pre-defined HTML and CSS patterns. 


Landmarks Landmarks is an ePub3 navigation component that is designed to enable Reading Systems to provide efficient access to the document. It replaces the ePub2 Guide structure. It is generally specified with a "Start Reading" link, and links to other direct access pages of interest such as the Title Page and Copyright. Like the ePub2 Guide navigation component it is likely to be ignored or mis-used in Reading Systems.

Layout In FX layout means structures which alter the flow of the primary content such as columns, or move specific blocks to a position on a page (float page/column top/bottom) or between margins (float left/right), or specifically position and size a content block in accordance with pre-defined or custom rules. 

Library, Account A list of all documents that have been moved to the Account Library. These can be filtered by various criteria such a title, author, identifier, code, etc. if the metadata has been supplied. 

Library Document A document that has been transferred from a User Account Private Documents, or from an Account Project. Library documents can be viewed by all user but they cannot be edited. A document must be moved to a Private Account or Account Project for it to be edited.

Linguistic equivalent (Controlled vocabularies) A term that has been translated from the exchange language term and allows the application of linguistic equivalence. In other words it may not be a direct translation, but rather the equivalent term or phrase used in another language to express the same idea.

Lists of A type of Table of Content list in numbered order for a specific type of block. Examples include: List of Tables, List of Figures, List of Maps. In print each item will have a page number next to it. In e-books the item should be interactive and go directly to the numbered item block. 



MathML An XML tagging method for mathmatical equations. Where systems are capable it enables both their visual rendering and voicing for accessible comprehension. At present AZARDI is the only ePub3 reader capable of natively rendering MathML. Other reading systems depend on Javascript rendering using libraries such as MathJax. This increases reader overhead and filesize by up to 20MB.


Media A generic term meaning all images, video and audio. It explicitly does not include text and interactive components. 

Media Block A defined FX tagging pattern block that gives the semantic mean of a specific block. Media blocks include: icon-paragraph-rw, image-rw, figure-rw, illustration-rw, map-rw, plate-rw. There are also inline media containers for symbol-rw and character-rw.  Rich media includes video-rw, audio-block-rw, audio-controls-rw and audio-inline-rw. 

Metadata Casually defined as information about data. FX has many types of metadata for different purposes which are defined separately. Metadata can be expressed in a number of structures the most common of which are authority files, taxonomies and thesauruses. 

Metadata, descriptive Information that describes the content for humans and/or other retrieval systems. Most simple descriptive systems use the Dublin Core terms. Libraries define more complex systems. 

Metadata, fixity Information that describes the physical characteristics of content and/or content components. Eg: file size, format, dimensions, character count, language, encoding requirements, etc. 

Metadata, provenance Information that describes where the content came from and why it is in a use or reuse condition. 

Metadata, rights Information that describes the ownership of the content and the terms and conditions under which it can be used.

Metadata, pedagogy Information about the use and applicability of content in an educatation, teaching, or training environment to allow it to be used in the correct learning context. 

Metadata, work All the information associated with a work that provides any combination of the above metadata structures. 

mobi (mobipocket) A digital file format which is used for  Kindle ereaders. The file extension is .mobi. It is compatible with the file extension .prc. 

 METS Acronym: Metadata for Encoding and Transmission System. An Information Packaging standard designed and maintained by the US Library of Congress.


Named Lists This is a collective term for any publishing ordered list that is identifiable by a name. It includes Table of Content and other Lists-of such as List of Tables which are ordered by their sequence in the document. Other Named Lists include abbreviations, glossary, index, etc. which are generally alphabetically ordered. These are generally assembled on a dedication FX Section. If multiple named lists are required in a single Section FX defines named-list-containers which can be placed in any location and are a valid target for the Digital Publisher list-of generator.

Narrower term A relative term relationship with any term that has been defined as a broader term of this term.  See: broader term.

Navigation Document The "nav" document is defined in the ePub3 specification. It replaces the ePub2 NCX structure. In Digital Publisher packaging it is always named TOC.xhtml. It contains the primary Table of Contents, but can also optionally include Page navigation and other List-of navigation components. However it is unlikely that many reading devices will support navigation structures other than the basic Table of Contents. 

NLM Acronym:National Library of Medicine. DTD for tagging academic content. IGP:FoundationXHTML uses the NLM vocabulary for detailed reference tagging.

Nook A proprietary ePub reader from Barnes & Noble. They support ePub and have a proprietary and rather ridiculous proprietary fixed-layout format definition using arcane XML. They only operate inside the USA and are of little international influence at present.


OPF Open Packaging Format. The primary container of an ePub containing the metadata, manifest and spine. It is mandatory and there can be only one OPF. The file must be named *.opf in the ePub package.

OAIS Acronym: Open Archival Information System. A digital archive reference model designed by NASA and now maintained by the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems). It is also known as CCSDS 650.0-B-1  (also ISO 14721:2003).

It is not strictly a standard but a best practices Reference Model. The IGP:Repository 2 implementation is very close to the OAIS model to ensure all main requirements for long-term data management are included, especially with respect to life-cycle maintenance and trustability of stored data.  We have deliberately maintained the OAIS vocabulary (as ugly as it is in places)  to make it easy to relate our product implementation with the Reference Model.

Organization We use organization rather than enterprise as the collective noun because we have an inclusive approach, and every organization does not have profitability and business enterprise goals as their aims and objectives. There was a late-90's trend to NGO's, Government Organizations and other non-business organizations to start operating as businesses. However with Internet collaboration and shifting of CRM to VRM that trend is reversing, especially as wise institutions understand and better define their roles and relationships with stakeholders. There is a difference between being business-like and a business. IGP encapsulates that subtlety.


Preferred term (non-preferred term) A preferred term is one which resolves synonym confusion and establishes the correct term to be used.

Private Document A document that only an authorized user can see, edit and interact with in from their User Account. Other users cannot see or access the document. To allow others to see a document it must be moved to a Project.  NOTE. Private documents can be seen by Administrators and Maintainers.

Project A defined and named container in DPM that allows permitted people to collaborate on documents in an isolated environment under the control of a Project Manager.

Project Document A document that only authorized project members can see, edit and interact with from the Account Project. Users who are not members of a project cannot see that projects' documents. 


QAA An abbreviation for Questions and Answers

Qualifier, term A part of a term than can be used to remove ambiguity from the primary term word or phrase if it exists. For example the term Reports is very generic, but qualifiers as Reports (financial), Reports (Quality assurance) resolves the ambiguity.

Questions and Answers Interactive content that can present questions in a number of structured and give correct or wrong evaluated answers based on user interaction. FX defines a large set of Interactive Question and Answer tagging patterns. Including: True/false, Multi True/False, Text Entry, Multi Text Entry, Multichoice, Select, Associate, Sequence and Sort Words. These work dynamically in DP if and when the document template uses the AZARDI Interactive Engine.


Related term (Controlled vocabularies) (RT) A term that has an associative relationship with another term. Use of this relationship is one of the primary differentiators between a taxonomy and a thesaurus.

Vocabulary terms in a controlled vocabulary that are closely related. That is, they refer to closely related concepts. Abbreviated in displays as “RT.” Related terms may, for example, exhibit the following relationships:

field of study/objects studied
action/product of action

RelaxNG REgular LAnguage for XML Next Generation. A method for defining and validating an XML file. Theoretically more simple than a DTD.

Rich Media A general term used to describe video and audio as opposed to text and images. The ePub3 specification defines HTML5 media files with video as MP4 and audio as MP3. Both of these are proprietary formats controlled by a consortium comprising Microsoft and Apple who had considerable influence in restricting the available rich media formats.  


Scope note (Controlled vocabularies) A scope note is added to a term when a term is ambiguous. It can be added to ensure consistency, and give direction on how to interpret the term. Not every term needs a scope note, but their presence can be of considerable help in using a thesaurus correctly and reaching a correct understanding of the given field of information.

Section The general term given to a single section of a document that can be saved and edited in the Writer interface, and which represents a valid structural or semantic unit of content. Examples include: BookTitlePage-rw, Copyright-rw, TableOfContents-rw, Part-rw, Chapter-rw, Notes-rw, Index-rw and many more. 

Smashwords A web application service company targeting self-publishers and "indie-publishers". They have a range of limited template services that enable the creation of mediocre print and digital books for the non-critical user. They aggressively sell-up services such as proof-reading and cover design. Not for the serious publisher.

SMIL Acronmym: Syncronized Multimedia Integration Language. W3C XML scheme for adding animation and audio to text files.

Structural Semantic Vocabulary  ePub3 An attempt at creating a controlled vocabulary for digital content tagging patterns by the IDPF. It is strongly DocBook oriented with a strange weighting of types reflecting either compromise of lack of interest by participating organizations. This is probably one of the most critical and important parts of making well organized digital content, but the vocabulary is oriented towards simple trade with little consideration for academic, education or genre based content. IGP:Formats on Demand attempts to use this very limited and strangely weighted vocabulary in ePub3 when packaging to the very genre rich FX tagging pattern vocabulary. It is a significant compromise.

Subject headings (Controlled vocabularies) Well known subject heading systems include the Library of Congress system, MESH, and Sears.

Subject indexing is the act of describing a document by index terms to indicate what the document is about or to summarize its content. Indexes are constructed, separately, on three distinct levels: terms in a document such as a book; objects in a collection such as a library; and documents (such as books and articles) within a field of knowledge.


Table A presentation structure expressed in XHTML that allows content to be laid out in vertical named columns and horizontal rows. The intersections of columns and rows are called cells. Tables are a relatively complex structure in that they  often need comprehensive styling customization. FX defines a set of basic useful tables with some default styling. These are: Classic, Modern, Grid, Layout, Financial 3 Column, Financial 5 Column and Year Planner. Tables should not be used for text layout except in extreme cases.

Table of Contents A special named frontmatter section of a book or document that includes at least the title and page number (in print) or a link (in e-books) to each section in the document. This should include frontmatter, body and backmatter sections. FX also allows the optional inclusion of any combination of title-block components (title number, title, sub-title, author, contributors, other) and section Headings.

Tagging The act of applying XHTML defined tags, and enhancing those tags with CSS class selectors to create valuable publisher digital content. Digital Publisher has many automatic tagging tools, as well as manual tagging tools.

Tagging patterns In FoundationXHTML tagging patterns are predefined combinations of tags that ensure the consistency and quality of the XHTML to ensure the content has reliable and predictable currnet and future value. Tagging patterns are available from the Content Block accordion for Sections, Blocks, Paragraphs and Inline content. Tagging patterns can be structural, semantic, styling, presentation controllers, behaviour controllers or metadata.

Target language (Controlled vocabularies) A target language is a language that is the focus or end result of certain processes. In formal controlled vocabularies it is any language that is not the exchange language.

Taxonomy (Controlled vocabularies) A taxonomy is a formal list of controlled words arranged from abstract to specific. It is a particular classification scheme arranged in a hierarchical structure by subtype-supertype or parent-child relationships. Generally a parent term can have many children, but a child term can have only one parent. Parent term expresses a similar relationship to the thesaurus broader term concept, but in a thesaurus it is possible for a narrower term to have multiple broader terms. This is generally not logical or correct in a specific topic taxonomy.

Within IGP:Information Architect 2 we treat a taxonomy as being a tree hierarchy classification system for vocabularies where terms have simple one parent relationships.

TEIAcronym: Text Encoding Initiative. DTD for tagging literature, drama and poetry with special approach on historical documents.

Template A template is a compent that is a something to follow or a starting point to define the various components of a document for a particular purpose. Digital Publisher supports multiple template components including: Presentation Templates (CSS), Section Templates (XHTML), Document Templates (a combination of all), Formats on Demand templates (HTML), Content Block templates (scripted). 

Template Components Template components is a library of all configuration and processing files that are used in DP. It is available from the Maintenance account by an authorized user only. This is a very advanced area that should only be used by technically competent users. 

Template Manager, Account  A location where template components can be created, modified and deleted by authorized account users.

Template Manager, Maintenance An interface location which can be accessed by authorized users for the creation, modification and deletion of template and template components for all accounts. 

Template, Master A template released by Infogrid Pacific for a specific content genre. Template masters are intended as exemplars that can be customized by users for their own purpose. The concept of a Master Template is that it represents the current full set of tagging patterns for a specific task. The core template is DPMaster-2012-1. This is updated sometimes weekly. 

Terms (Controlled vocabularies) Terms are the basic vocabulary semantic units for conveying concepts. They are usually single-word nouns, since nouns are the most concrete part of speech but can be noun phrases or other part of speech where appropriate in certain vocabulary contexts.

In IGP:Information Architect 2 a term is constructed of three parts for flexibility and applicability in a number of areas. The parts are: Code, Term, Qualifier.

Term relationships (Controlled vocabularies) Term relationships are links between terms. These relationships can be divided into three types: hierarchical, equivalency or associative.

Text Blocks Sematic text blocks which have content value when correctly identified. Well tagged text blocks allow styling and processing to be applied where appropriate. They also allow additional metadata and processing to be applied if required. Examples include: Abstract, boxed, codelist, dedication, epigraph, epigraph-verse, equation, extract, notebox, sidebar, pullquote, email, letter, instant messate, text message and more. 

Thesaurus (Controlled vocabularies) A thesaurus is a list of categorized words or phrases associated with an object. It is a work that lists terms (which may be words or concept phrases) grouped together according to similarity of meaning (containing synonyms and sometimes antonyms), in contrast to a dictionary, which contains definitions and pronunciations.


Unicode The international standard that defines all characters by language. Digital Publisher supports the entire Unicode character set. Please note to view all characters requires the correct fonts to be available. 

UTF-8 The required XML text encoding method in ePub and high-quality digital content to allow all interanational characters to be represented.


Variable variable-rw is an FX tag that can be used to annotate variable content in a template that must be edited for a specific book or document instance. Content tagged with the variable-rw selector will show as red in Writer, and normal style colour in Reader and Print. Example of use include tagging the ISBN number on a copyright section template to indicate to the editor it must be customized. 

Vook A self-publishing oriented web service with severe limitation in book presentation and templating. They offer the capability to take a digital book to a number of North American channels for a fixed fee starting at US$99 and increasing from there. They have recently launched their own selling model as well with a competitive 15% of sales value fee model. 


Watermark A custom and individual text insertion into a ePub or other format to identify the purchaser of a book. A watermark may contain buyers name, account number, purchase date, purchase identifier such as an invoice number. Watermarks can be applied openly and into other structures. IGP watermarking allows watermarks to be applied visibly in the title page and/or the copyright page. It can be inserted in the metadata of the OPF and all book sections. It can also be inserted invisibly into document images such as the cover. 

Workflow Choreographed business process activities which are controlled by formal process definitions and mandate participant activities.


XML Acronym for eXtensible Markup Language. XML is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding (tagging) documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. It is defined in the XML 1.0 Specification produced by the W3C. It is an open standard. XHTML is based on XML, but HTML and HTML5 are not. XML has a basic set of rules for the correct creation of tagging structures including wellformedness and optionally, validity to a defined DTD (Document Type Definition).

XHTML Acronym for eXtensible HyperText Markup Language) is a family of XML markup languages that mirror or extend versions of the commonly used Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), the language in which most web pages are written. XHTML imposes XML well-formedness and validity rules to HTML.

XHTML5 A version of HTML5 that applies XML rules for well-formedness. This makes it significantly more complex to use and is the HTML that is used in ePub 3.

XML Schema. A more complex than a DTD XML definition language that includes datatypes and namespaces.




z-index A CSS property that allows content to be ordered in the Z dimension by applying a relative integer. The larger then number the higher the content rises in the rendering order. For example a content block with a z-index of 500 will be in front of content with a z-index of 100. Negative integers can also be used. For z-index to work content must be a CSS block. 

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